Stolle A, Szuppa T, Leonhardt SE, Ondruschka B (2011) Ball milling in organic synthesis: solutions and challenges. Chem Soc Rev 40(5):2317–2329 PubMed CrossRef PubMedCentral Google Scholar Stolle A, Schmidt R, Jacob K (2014) Scale-up of organic reactions in ball mills: process intensification with regard to energy efficiency and economy of …

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The scale-up of the Knoevenagel-condensation between vanillin and barbituric acid carried out in planetary ball mills is investigated from an engineering perspective and results indicate that the optimal value is roughly 50% of the total milling beakers' volume, VB,total, independent of the reaction scale or reaction conditions. The scale-up of the Knoevenagel …

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Ball milling is a mechanical method, used in organic synthesis to prepare various heterocyclic compounds . It is an economical and eco-friendly method applied during synthesis and reactions of organic compounds as follows ( Fig. 14.5 ).

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Early work by James and coworkers 71 identified pseudofluid kinetics during ball mill synthesis of Zn-based zeolitic imidazole framework (ZIF) ZIF-8 by in situ Raman spectroscopy (Fig. 2A). In their experiments the ball milling reaction was stopped at different time intervals, and the Raman probe inserted into the vial; no powder was removed ...

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The use of ball milling in the synthesis and reactions of organic compounds have been published in many review articles [142–146]. The application of solvent-free ball milling in organic synthesis is relatively rare. However, in the last decade, this technique has attracted growing interest because of its simplicity, low cost, and environment ...

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General procedure for the synthesis of 3a under high speed vibratory ball mill (HSVBM) The aniline ( 1a ) was added (1 mmol, 0.24 g) with N -vinyl amide ( 2a, N -vinyl acetamide, 2.1 mmol, 0.25 g) and PMA (10 mol%, 0.30 g) into the open air agate dish and one ball (d = 51.6 mm, 186.25 g) was put over the mixture, the mill was closed and the ...

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Mechanical alloying via high-energy ball-milling is a scalable experimental technique, which is broadly used for the preparation and modification of metals, hydrides, and other inorganic solids.1 In contrast, mechanochemistry is seldom attempted in organic synthesis, and when it is, mechanical processing of organic reactants

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In recent times mechanochemistry by ball milling has been widely explored for a range of synthetic transformations including metal or organo-catalyzed processes; 1 heterocycle synthesis; 2 construction of metal organic materials; 3 and the generation and use of organometallic reagents. 4 Often, the implementation of these reactions by ball-milling …

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Fluorescein alkylation was also carried out using a ball mill as a potential reaction reactor (schematic diagram shown in Figure 3). Many studies on using a ball mill for organic synthesis have been published, emphasizing the economic and ecological aspects [38,39].

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Ball milling in organic synthesis: solutions and challenges † Achim Stolle,*a Tony Szuppa,a Silke E. S. Leonhardt a and Bernd Ondruschka a Author affiliations Abstract During the last decade numerous protocols have been published using the method of ball milling for synthesis all over the field of organic chemistry.

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Ball milling in organic synthesis: solutions and challenges. ... Understanding chemical reaction mechanisms in ionic liquids: successes and challenges. Hubbard CD, Illner P, van Eldik R. Chem Soc Rev, 40(1):272-290, 15 Nov 2010 Cited by: 33 articles | PMID: 21079861. Review. Claim to ...

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organic synthesis. Nevertheless, this method is not a high-throughput one as the majority of COFs remain as powders in solutions. A few physical approaches, such as ultrasonication, 16 ball milling,17,18 and mechanical delamination,19,20 have been uti-lised to exfoliate COF powders into nanosheets. However, these

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One of the techniques employed was mechanochemical ball milling in a mixer mill and a planetary mill. In the case of the mixer mill, the reaction conditions were 2 hours at 30 Hz frequency using a 12 mm stainless steel ball, while in the planetary mill 50 × 3 mm balls were used at 500 rpm.

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Recently, solid-state organic synthesis using ball milling has attracted considerable interest as a new tool for carrying out organic transformations.1,2 The practical advantages of this approach include the avoidance of potentially harmful organic solvents and simpler operational handling. However, the rational

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The cover design represents the theme of this issue, which is "enabling techniques" in the field of Organic Chemistry. The hand at the bottom of the design is presenting these techniques, using symbols to signify each area: flow chemistry, mechanochemistry, sonochemistry, radiolabeling, and artificial intelligence. The artwork was created by Mahnaz Amin Foroughi. See the …

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To investigate the effect of BaTiO 3 powders during ball milling on the structure, SEM and XRD were utilized. As shown by SEM in Fig. 2a, the raw h-BN platelets exhibit a large lateral size of approximately 30 μm and large thickness of about 2 μm. After directly ball milling for 8 h, the lateral size and thickness of as-prepared BNNSs are both deduced (Fig. 2b).

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For the first time, ball milling is used in the functionalization of silsesquioxanes. The solid-state nucleophilic addition of aminopropylisobutyl POSS to cyclic anhydrides leads to silsesquioxane amic acids in virtually quantitative yields without the use of a solvent. The reactions are easily scalable and can be adopted to multigram quantities.

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the mechanochemical ball-milling synthesis of two model organic pharmaceutical cocrystals, followed by structural characterization using PXRD data and Figure 1. The mechanochemical syntheses of: (a) molecular square reported by Otera29 and (b) …

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Ball Milling An efficient and ecologically friendly synthetic approach ‐‐‐ Jackie Ding . Ball milling – solvent free approach Application in organic synthesis Conclusion Content 2 . The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry

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Ball milling synthesis was conducted to produce TpMA by use of a planetary ball mill (model: Grinder BM4) that generated dynamic energies by differences in speeds between balls and grinding jars. 1,3,5-triformylphloroglucinol (Tp: 0.9 mmol, 189 mg) and melamine (MA: 1.35 mmol, 170 mg) were placed in a 50 mL zirconia grinding jar, with fifteen 7 ...

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In the last years, numerous protocols have been published using ball milling for organic synthesis. Compared to other methods such as microwave or ultrasound irradiation and ionic liquids, ball mill chemistry is an economical, and ecofriendly method in organic synthesis that is rather underrepresented in the knowledge of organic chemists. The aim of this review …

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Mechanochemistry utilizes mechanical forces to activate chemical bonds. It offers environmentally benign routes for both (bio) organic and inorganic syntheses. However, direct comparison of mechanochemistry results is often very challenging. In mechanochemical synthetic protocols, ball mill setup (mechanical design and grinding vessel geometry) in addition to …

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